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歐盟無人機營運之共同規範 (A‑NPA 2015-10) 提出33項建議

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科技產業資訊室 (iKnow) - 周意庭、張小玫 發佈於 2016年8月12日

圖、歐盟無人機營運之共同規範 (A‑NPA 2015-10) 提出33項建議
 
無人機到底是商機或是危機?2016年將是無人機商機起飛的關鍵一年,無人機運用的範圍超乎想像,例如:娛樂、網通、救災、物聯網、工業自動化、國土安全等應用。同時,基於思考到「增加人類福祉、解決人力短缺」議題,使無人機用途的延伸與運用更顯重要性。但是目前,在無人機的轉換成商機之前,確實需考量其飛行安全性與隱私性對人類可能產生的影響,以致各國無不加緊腳步訂定法律規範,使未來的天空不致因隨著無人機的升空而佈滿危機。

歐盟提出無人機營運之共同規範 (A‑NPA 2015-10)

2012年,由歐盟多個組織和專家組成歐洲無人機領導小組(ERSG),以制定民用無人機融入歐洲航空系統的路線圖(Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems  Roadmap)。2013年6月,ERSG將路線圖提交歐盟委員會,闡述為實現民用無人機安全融入歐洲航空系統需要考慮的問題及解決問題步驟。該路線圖分為4個時間區段完成,分別是2013年、2018年,2023年和2028年。
 
歐盟為了統一會員國之間無人機相關管理辦法,歐盟委員會指示歐洲航空安全局 (European Aviation Safety Agency, EASA)負責相關提案,以下為EASA於2015年12月時提出的〈歐盟操作無人機的共同規範提議〉Proposal to create common rules for operating drones in Europe (A‑NPA 2015-10),將無人機監管的規則依據性能和風險區分成三類,並提出33項建議以利制定歐盟國家間共同的安全準則。

EASA對無人機監管的規則依據性能和風險,區分成三類:

(1)開放類Open(低風險):針對風險非常低的無人機運行類型,不論是民用或商用皆無需通過航空監管部門的審理,也無針對運營商和飛行員的資質要求。該類無人機的安全性是僅須通過運行限制、符合行業標準、保證對某些功能的最低要求及運行規則。該類別由警方監管。(重量25公斤以下,可視範圍且離人與地面150公尺安全距離內飛行,並與其他領空的使用者分開。)
 
(2)特定類Specific(中等風險):針對特定類型的無人機運作活動具有一定的風險者,需要通過額外的限制或通過對設備和人員能力提出更高的要求來控制風險。該類型由成員國民航當局(NAA)授權,可設立一個認證機構協助經營者來進行風險評估。(這類無人機的設備、零件及功能須各自取得認證通過,例如「偵測及閃避裝備」等。)
 
(3)審定類Certified(高風險):針對無人機運行的風險上升到類似於正常載人航空器運營的風險水平,將被歸類在審定類。基本上,該類無人機運行將視同載人機,所以適航審定政策基本是一致的,需要取得多個批准。該類別的要求與載人飛機適航管理相同。由NAA和EASA監管。

針對A‑NPA 2015-10共同規範 提出33項建議

Proposal 1: It is proposed to regulate commercial and non‑commercial operations as the same drone might be used for both commercial and non‑commercial activities.
 
建議1:鑒於同款無人機可能使用於商業或非商業性的活動,因此所有無人機都需規範商業及非商業的操作說明。
 
Proposal 2: Three categories will be established for the operation of drones:
— ‘Open’ category (low risk): safety is ensured through operations limitations, compliance with industry standards, and the requirement to have certain functionalities and a minimum set of operational rules. Enforcement mainly by the police.
— ‘Specific’ category (medium risk): authorisation by an national aviation authority (NAA) possibly assisted by a Qualified Entity (QE)(註1) following a risk assessment performed by the operator. A manual of operations lists the risk mitigation measures.
— ‘Certified’ category (higher risk): requirements comparable to those for manned aviation. Oversight by NAA (issue of licences and approval of maintenance, operations, training, ATM/ANS3 (註2) and aerodromes organisations) and by the Agency (design and approval of foreign organisations).
 
建議2:無人機的三種類別:
─ 開放類 (低風險):此類無人機透過操作有限的運營模式、遵守產業的標準及規範限定特別功能來保障其安全性。主要由警察監管即可。
─ 特定類 (中等風險):依駕駛員的風險評估表現由國家航空管理局(NAA)或相關發照單位授權,且於操作手冊中列有風險緩解措施。
─審定類 (高風險):規定如同一般的載人機。由國家航空管理局(發照和維修、營運、訓練及飛航管理、飛航服務的認可)及政府單位(設計及國外機構認證)共同監督。
 
Proposal 3: Member States (EASA MS) have to designate the responsible authorities for the enforcement of the regulations. It is proposed not to include into the EU aviation system the oversight of the ‘open’ and ‘specific’ categories. This will provide the EASA MS with the required flexibility at local level, thus not being subject to EASA oversight (‘EASA Standardisation’).
 
建議3:歐洲航空安全局的成員國需指定負責的權威人士以制定規範。建議制定時不要受限於歐盟所制訂的三種分類(開放、特定、審定),如此一來成員國能依自身國家需求彈性制訂。
 
Proposal 4: QEs will be approved and audited by the NAAs or the Agency to ensure their adherence to common rules.
 
建議4:國家航空管理局或政府單位將會認可、審查有權發照單位以確保他們嚴格執行規範。

OPEN CATEGORY (開放類:建議5~19)

Proposal 5: ‘Open’ category operation is any operation with small drones under direct visual line of sight with an MTOM of less than 25 kg operated within safe distance from persons on the ground and separated from other airspace users.
 
建議5:“開放類”是指任何小型無人機在直接目視範圍內其最大起飛重量不超過25公斤,且與人、地面保持安全距離,並與其他空域的使用者相互隔離。
 
Proposal 6: To prevent unintended flight outside safe areas and to increase compliance to applicable regulations, it is proposed to mandate geo‑fencing (areas in which drones cannot fly by software design or otherwise) and identification for certain drones and operation areas.
 
建議6:為了防止不小心飛過安全區域和遵守適用的規範,建議對某些無人機和營運區域授權地理圍欄和識別技術,地理圍欄是指對無人機不能飛行的空域做軟體設計。
 
Proposal 7: To ensure safety, environmental protection, and security and privacy, the competent authorities can define ‘no‑drone zones’ where no operation is allowed without authority approval, and ‘limited‑drone zones’ where drones must provide a function to enable easy identification and automatic limitation of the airspace they can enter and should have a limited mass.
 
建議7:為確保安全、環保、保障及隱私,有權單位可定義「無人機禁飛區」意即禁止未經官方認可的無人機進入;「無人機限飛區」意即無人機必須具備簡單識別及自動限定空域的功能才可進入,這類區域中的無人機也須有重量上的限制。
 
Proposal 8: Standards for identification and geo‑fencing functions will be endorsed by the Agency and could be referenced in the market regulations in order to ensure that the majority of consumer products comply with these standards and to ensure harmonisation at technical level. This will enable manufacturers to develop adequate equipment and to declare compliance with these standards.
 
建議8:識別的標準及地理圍欄的功能需有政府單位的背書且能被市場管理部門參考,以確保大部分的消費商品遵守這些規則也能確保技術層面的一致性。這將使製造商發展出合適的設備也能於他們的產品中聲明符合這些規定。
 
Proposal 9: The Agency will define a commonly used data format (e.g. for map data) that should be used to provide the information in an open web interface. This information could be made available through service providers, presented through a smartphone app, or directly uploaded to the drone.
 
建議9:相關機構將界定通用的資料形式(如:地圖數據)並在公開網站上提供這類訊息。服務提供商可提供訊息獲得的方式,如透過手機應用程式傳送或直接上傳至無人機。
 
Proposal 10: Manufacturers and importers of drones have to comply with the applicable product safety Directive, and will have to issue information to respective customers on operational limitations applicable to the ‘open’ category. The market regulations will be applicable to smaller drones and an upper threshold needs to be established.
 
建議10:無人機的製造商及進口商必須遵守適用的產品安全指令,並向消費者發布關於“開放類”無人機的操作限定規範。市場監管適用於小型無人機,並有最高門檻的設定。
 
Proposal 11: Essential requirements for the intended general product safety directive and related standards will be developed with the involvement of the Agency defining the safety characteristics (e.g. kinetic energy, performance, characteristics, loss‑of‑link capability) appropriate for the category and subcategory of the drone.
 
建議11:政府單位須參與制定一般產品安全指令及其相關標準,並定義一系列適用於無人機的主分類及次分類的安全特徵(如:動能、性能、特性、失聯後的能力)。
 
Proposal 12: All drone operations in the ‘open’ category must be conducted within the defined limitations:
— Only flights in direct visual line of sight of the pilot are allowed.
— Only drones with a maximum take‑off mass below 25 kg are allowed.
— No operation of drones in ‘no‑drone zones’ is permitted.
— Drones operating in ‘limited‑drone zones’ must comply with the applicable limitations.
— The pilot is responsible for the safe separation from any other airspace user(s) and shall give right of way to any other airspace user(s).
— A drone in the ‘open’ category shall not operate at an altitude exceeding 150 m above the ground or water.
— The pilot is responsible for the safe operation and safe distance from uninvolved persons and property on the ground and from other airspace users and shall never fly the drone above crowds (> 12 persons).
 
建議12:所有的“開放類”無人機必須遵守以下規範:
─只允許在直接目視範圍內飛行
─無人機最大起飛重量低於25公斤
─在「無人機禁飛區」內禁止運行
─在「無人機限飛區」內飛行須遵守適用的規則
─駕駛員須與其他空域的使用者保持安全距離且給予其他空域使用者飛行權利
─“開放類”無人機的飛行高度距地面及水面不得超過150公尺
─駕駛員負責保證無人機飛行時與不相關的民眾、財產及其他空域使用者保持安全距離,且不得飛行於人群(12人以上)之上。
 
Proposal 13: For any drone operation over 50 m above ground, basic aviation awareness shall be required for the pilot.
 
建議13:當無人機飛行距地面超過50公尺時,駕駛員應有基本的航空意識。
 
Proposal 14: Create three subcategories in the ‘open’ category:
— CAT A0: ‘Toys’ and ‘mini drones’ < 1 kg
— CAT A1: ‘Very small drones’ < 4 kg
— CAT A2: ‘Small drones’ < 25 kg
 
建議14:開放類無人機中的次分類:
─分類A0:玩具及迷你無人機< 1公斤
─分類A1:非常小的無人機< 4公斤
─分類A2:小型無人機< 25公斤
 
Proposal 15: Additional requirements for CAT A0: ‘Toys’ and ‘mini drones’ < 1 kg:
— Any drone sold as a toy or consumer product with a mass below 1 kg could comply with the applicable product safety Directive and shall have limited performance to assure flight below 50 m above ground and local operation or alternatively the means to automatically limit the altitude and the airspace they can enter.
— Operation shall be performed below 50 m above ground.
 
建議15:分類A0「玩具及迷你無人機< 1公斤」的附加要求
─限制玩具或迷你無人機的飛行高度距地面低於50公尺,且具備自動限制高度及空域的功能。
 
Proposal 16: Additional requirements for CAT A1: ‘Very small drones’ < 4 kg:
— Any drone sold as a consumer product which is heavier than 1 kg could comply with the applicable general product safety Directive and shall have the means to automatically limit the airspace it can enter and the means to allow automatic identification.
— Drones operating in the ‘limited‑drone zones’ shall have active identification and up‑to‑date geo‑fencing capability enabled.
— For any operation over 50 m above ground, the pilot needs to have basic aviation awareness.
— Any failures, malfunctions, defects or other occurrences that lead to severe injuries to or fatalities of any person need to be reported.
 
建議16:分類A1「非常小的無人機< 4公斤」的附加要求
─任何一種重量超過1公斤的消費性產品,應符合適用的產品安全指令,並有辦法自動限制無人機使用空域,具備自動識別功能。
─當無人機運行於「無人機限飛區」時應有主動識別且主動更新地理圍欄的功能。
─對任何飛行距地面超過50公尺的無人機,駕駛員都需要有基本的飛航意識。
─任何因失效、功能故障、系統錯誤等原因而導致嚴重損傷甚至人員傷亡都應向上提出報告。
 
Proposal 17: Additional requirements for CAT A2: ‘Small drones’ < 25 kg
— Any drone sold as a consumer product which is heavier than 4 kg could comply with the applicable general product safety Directive and shall have the means to automatically limit the airspace it can enter and the means to allow automatic identification.
— Operation in the ‘limited‑drone zones’ is not permitted in the ‘open’ category for drones with a take‑off mass above 4 kg.
— For any operation over 50 m above ground, the pilot needs to have basic aviation awareness.
— Any failures, malfunctions, defects or other occurrences that lead to severe injuries to or fatalities of any person need to be reported to the Agency.
 
建議17:分類A2「小型無人機< 25公斤」的附加要求
─任何一種重量超過4公斤的消費性產品,應符合適用的產品安全指令,並須有辦法自動限制無人機使用的空域,具備自動識別功能。
─開放類無人機的起飛重量超過4公斤時不允許飛行於「無人機限飛區」。
─對任何飛行距地面超過50公尺的無人機駕駛員都需要有基本的飛航意識。
─任何因失效、功能故障、系統錯誤等原因而導致嚴重損傷甚至人員傷亡都應向局方報告。
 
Proposal 18: In dedicated areas the operation of drones (or models) can be performed in the ‘open’ category according to the conditions and procedures defined by the competent authority.
 
建議18:根據有關單位制訂的條件規範,開放類無人機可在特定區域執行操作。
 
Proposal 19: Tethered aircraft up to a mass of 25 kg or a defined volume for aircraft lighter than air can be operated in the ‘open’ category outside ‘no‑drone zones’ below 50 m above ground or water, or in dedicated areas notified to other airspace users.
 
建議19:重量達25公斤或飛機限定容積輕於空氣的栓鍊式飛行器可操作於開放類無人機的「無人機禁飛區」外距地面、水面低於50公尺處,或已告知其他空域使用者的特定區域。

SPECIFIC CATEGORY (特定類:建議20~28)

Proposal 20: ‘Specific risk operation’ is any operation with drones which poses more significant aviation risks to persons overflown or which involves sharing the airspace with manned aviation. Each specific aviation risk needs to be analysed and mitigated through a safety risk assessment.
 
建議20:「特定類風險操作」是指任何具有顯著飛行風險的無人機,如:在人的上空飛行或涉及到載人機的空域。每個特定類航空風險都需透過安全風險評估來分析及降低危害。
 
Proposal 21: A safety risk assessment shall be performed by the operator taking into account all the elements that contribute to the risk of the particular operation. For this purpose, the operator shall:
—provide to the competent NAA all the information required for a preliminary applicability check of the category of operation;
—provide to the competent authority a safety risk assessment covering both the drone and the operation, identifying all the risks related to the specific operation, and proposing adequate risk‑mitigation measures.
— compile an appropriate Operations Manual containing all the required information, descriptions, conditions and limitations for the operation, including training and qualification for personnel, maintenance of the drone and its systems, as well as occurrence reporting and oversight of suppliers
 
建議21:操作者執行安全風險評估時應將所有可能導致操作上發生風險的物質納入考量。為此,操作者應該:
─提供所有需要的初始操作清單給國家航空管理局
─提供無人機及操作的安全風險評估給主管單位,並針對其風險提出合適的減緩風險方法。
─匯集一份合適的操作手冊,其中包含所有所需資料、描述、條件及操作限制,也涵蓋人員訓練及資格、無人機及其系統的維修和事故發生的報告及供應商的疏失。
 
Proposal 22: The competent authority of the State of the operator shall be responsible to issue the OA (註5) after the review of and agreement with the operator’s safety risk assessment and the Operations Manual in the ‘specific’ category.
 
建議22:操作者的國家主管當局在審查特定類無人機的操作者安全風險評估及操作手冊後才可發布操作授權。
 
Proposal 23: The operation shall be performed according to the limitations and conditions defined in the OA:
— The operator shall not carry out specific operations, unless holding a valid operation authorisation.
— The operator shall ensure that all involved personnel is sufficiently qualified and familiar with the relevant operation procedures and conditions.
— Before the initiation of any operation, the operator is responsible to collect the required information on permanent and temporarily limitations and conditions and to comply with any requirement or limitation defined by the competent authority or to request specific authorisation.
 
建議23:操作者應按照操作授權中的限制及條件來執行:
─操作者不應執行特定操作,除非持有效操作授權。
─操作者應確認所有人員皆符合資格且熟悉操作過程及條件。
─任何操作開始前,操作者應收集所有關於永久或暫時限制的資料並符合主管當局或特定授權的限制及要求。
 
Proposal 24: The operation in the ‘specific’ category might be performed with drones or equipment that is certified or otherwise approved. The operation might exceed the operational limitations for the certified equipment when specifically authorised and when the operation ensures application of adequate risk mitigations as identified in the OA.
 
建議24:特定類的無人機都已認證或認可。當操作可能逾越其制定的操作限制時需有相關單位的授權且確保有合適的風險減緩應用。
 
Proposal 25: Operators may voluntarily make use of suppliers or personnel holding certificates or voluntarily apply for a Remote Operator Certificate (ROC) detailing the means on how responsibilities are shared and having adequate privileges to authorise operations.
 
建議25:操作者可能自願性地使用供應商或相關人員提供的認證或主動去申請遠端操作認證,其說明責任如何共享及享有足夠的特權於授權操作上。
 
Proposal 26: Equipment, parts and functionalities might be approved independently from the drone itself and an approval may be granted. The IR(註6)s will define the required processes based on the ‘European Technical Standard Order (ETSO)’ process. The process for release and continuing airworthiness oversight needs to be adapted as equipment might not be installed on certified drones. This might cover ground stations or qualified ‘detect and avoid equipment’ installed on drones in the ‘specific’ category.
 
建議26:無人機的設備、零件及功能可能要各自獨立認可、批准。實施細則所定義的過程是以歐洲技術標準(ETSO)作為基礎,過程會公布出來且不斷監督良好的飛行性能,否則設備不會裝入有認證過的無人機。這可能包括:特定類無人機之地面站或具資格的「偵測及閃避裝置」機具皆須經過認證。
 
Proposal 27: The IRs define the organisational requirements for the operator to qualify for a ROC and to obtain adequate privileges in order to authorise/modify its own operations.
 
建議27:實施細則定義操作者的機構要求以利其符合遠端操作認證的資格及獲取些合宜的特權以授權它自己的操作。
 
Proposal 28: It is proposed that industry and standardisation bodies be requested to provide standard solutions to address the safety risks, e.g. for airworthiness aspects. Together with standard Operations Manuals, the safety risk assessment process would be simplified.
 
建議28:建議產業及標準化機構要提供標準的解決方法去處理有關安全上的風險。如:適航方面。也要提供標準化操作手冊使安全風險評估過程更為簡單。

CERTIFIED CATEGORY (審定類:建議29~33)

Proposal 29: In order to operate a drone in the ‘certified’ category, the airworthiness of the aircraft and its compliance with environmental standards shall be ensured in the same way as it is done today for manned aviation by issuing a TC or Restricted Type Certificate (RTC) for the type, and a CofA or restricted CofA for the particular drone.
 
建議29:為了要操作審定類別的無人機,需要確保飛行器的適航性及符合環境標準的規定,如同現今的載人機要有機型認證或特定認證,無人機則有CofA或特定CofA以做認證。
 
Proposal 30: The organisations responsible for the design, production, maintenance and training shall demonstrate their capability by holding respectively design, production, maintenance and training organisation approvals when required due to the risk posed by the operation.
 
建議30:基於操作上的風險,機構須負責設計、製造、維修、訓練及展示出相關認可。
 
Proposal 31: The pilot shall be licensed and the operator shall hold a ROC.
 
建議31:駕駛員需要有飛行證照和操作者要有遠端操作認證。
 
Proposal 32: CSs will be adopted by the Agency covering a broad range of different drone configurations, defining the safety objectives. They will be supplemented by industry standards endorsed by the Agency to allow for fast reaction on developments and might also cover operational and licensing aspects.
 
建議32:政府當局會採用涵蓋各式無人機構造的CS,定義安全目標,其有相關局處背書以提供產業標準化使產業能快速應變無人機的發展,也可能包含操作及授權方面。
 
Proposal 33: It is currently not foreseen to separate the IRs for the ‘certified’ category from the IRs for manned aviation.
 
建議33:目前還不能預知是否分開審定類無人機及載人機的實施細則。
 
 
註1:Qualified Entity: means an organisation which may be allocated a specific certification task by, and under the control and the responsibility of, the Agency or a national aviation authority.
註2:Air Traffic Management/ Air Navigation Services
註3:Maximum Take Off Mass
註4:Applicable product safety directive, general product safety directive refer to the EU regulations to place products on the market (http://ec.europa.eu/growth/single‑market/ce‑marking/index_en.htm)
註5:OA: Operation Authorisation
註6:IR: Implementing rules
 
(1082字;圖1)
 
參考資料:
Proposal to create common rules for operating drones in Europe
https://www.easa.europa.eu/system/files/dfu/205933-01-EASA_Summary%20of%20the%20ANPA.pdf



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